What is malnutrition in children and adults and what are its causes and symptoms and how is it treated?

The problem of malnutrition in children and adults is a problem throughout the world unfortunately, not impacts, and the risks to health the about a million people suffer from a large number of them are children, and malnutrition is considered the cause of death of about 2600000 child per year.

So what is malnutrition? What are the risks and its causes? How it affects each person according to his age? What are the symptoms? And how it can be handled and treated?

What is malnutrition in children and adults

ما هو سوء التغذية عند الأطفال والكبار

Malnutrition is a condition develops when the body does not get the correct amount of essential nutrients necessary (power – vitamins – minerals – proteins – fats – carbohydrates – sugars), which your body needs in order to ensure the performance of its work properly in order to keep organs and tissues healthy.

Malnutrition occurs in general as a result of two factors: the first factor with respect to food, which is covered by the person in terms of quality and quantity, the second factor relates to the body of the individual and his ability to absorb the nutrients and get them from the food and utilized in the construction of the tissues of the body and organize its work.

Affects eating disorder on the body in general and his work and the role of the senses (sight – taste – hearing – smell…) in addition to the lack of nutrient level in the blood and tissues is what leads to no deformation in its structure and members and the manner of its operation.

Can distinguish between two types of malnutrition in children and adults: malnutrition – overnutrition.

Undernutrition Undernutrition

Nutritional deficiency occurs as a result of the intake of nutrients and energy is less than the average amount the city needed by the body, or as a result of malabsorption ups or speed emptying of the intestine, which means that the body is not getting what it needs from those elements.

Most often spread nutritional deficiency in developing countries that suffer from poverty, and in resources and food, can be a lack of nutrition when the person wearing the transfer of one food item or group of items and not the whole domain.

Generally if the primary cause of malnutrition is serious in developing countries which is one of the most important factors that raise the rate of mortality is the lack of proteins and energy, especially when the prevalence of disease and serious health, it leads to increase the body’s need for energy and protein and other nutrients.

Can be anorexia nervosa of the most important factors that cause malnutrition in adolescents so that they have the goal of eating small amounts of food is loss of weight considerably.

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Hyper-nutrition, Over nutrition

Happen hyper nutrition when you eat a larger amount or to provide the body with some nutrients without others by a significant amount more than needs such as access to supplements, etc., and can be the cause is the habits of eating bad food and lack of exercise, and sometimes play the pharmaceutical and health its role in increasing appetite or change the body’s response to the direction of the food.

If all of eating rich in fat and salt, overly in addition to get the doses high of the items in the following list raises the incidence of the imposition of nutrition and obesity by 20%, while for the elements of overdose, are:

  • Niacin \ nicotinic acid works to lower your cholesterol level high.
  • Vitamin B6 for premenstrual syndrome.
  • Vitamin A to deal with skin problems.
  • Minerals and iron which can be obtained supplements without prescription.

Until recently it was believed that malnutrition for children, namely, the imposition feeding it from the problems associated with industrial society developed, but it affects a high proportion in developing countries as well.


Complications of malnutrition

مضاعفات سوء التغذية

Malnutrition negatively on the tissues and organs of the body and the manner of its operation, this impact from one type to another can be distinguish as follows:

Complications of nutritional deficiency

Often leads to lack of nutrition to the weakness in the immune system and the body to confront various diseases and infection, so the risk of infection with many of them, in addition to the high probability of osteoporosis in girls can suffer from interruptions in the menstrual periods, and in general it can be observed the high rate of exposure to heart problems, arteries and organs different, in case you are dealing with malnutrition can cause more problems, disabilities both physical and mental may threaten the patient’s life.

Complications of hyperalimentation.

As for malnutrition in children and adults which is to impose nutrition leads to overweight, which brings for them the risk of cardiovascular diseases, in addition to high cholesterol level and high blood pressure increase the likelihood of diabetes Type II, asthma, sleep apnea and feeling, and increases the likelihood of exposure to different types of cancer, the hyper-nutrition increases the risk of dying early as a result of chronic diseases, as they decrease quality of life.


Malnutrition by age

سوء التغذية حسب العمر

Different malnutrition symptoms and risks depending on the work that accompanies a person, and in general the results are severe and can be overcome and the impact of long-term exposure to malnutrition of the stage rockery and until the age of two years.

1. poor nutrition in the stage of El Geneina

Can cause malnutrition in phase of El Geneina to the delayed fetal growth and its mandate of low birth weight less than 2.5 kg, and the fetus is at risk if the mother suffer from malnutrition or anemia, or other diseases such as malaria or AIDS.

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2 – malnutrition in newborns

Malnutrition of newborns is rare, except in cases where the mother’s health problems or not be milk enough or not the child is able to breastfeed, and in such cases it is necessary to support the right doctor and under the supervision of a doctor.

3 – malnutrition in infants and toddlers

Six months or a year do not return the mother’s milk is sufficient alone to be the food of the child and his needs of nutrients, so you must support it with milk for children and the introduction of some foods from the vegetables and fruit baby can eat it but it must be done after consulting a doctor.

4 – malnutrition in school-age children and youth

Malnutrition is less common in this category, but even so some children do not get enough to eat or think unhealthy foods, or teen to turn many of them to reduce the amount of food in order to reduce weight significantly in a manner that is healthy.

5 – malnutrition in women of reproductive age

Women of childbearing age are considered the most vulnerable to malnutrition because they need them for energy and food during pregnancy and lactation, blood loss during menstruation and childbirth, so the anemia is common in women.

6 – malnutrition in the elderly

Despite the fact that most of the people believe that the elderly rarely may develop malnutrition unless they’re so vulnerable, may have their appetite is weak because of chronic disease or a particular drug, or can not eat due to the pain of their teeth or their loss, or because of the bridges and teeth alternative, or because of being poor or their health or mental weak.


Symptoms of malnutrition

أعراض سوء التغذية عند الأطفال

Different symptoms of malnutrition in children and adults as needed reason in addition to the elements that lacks not the person, it can be generally note the following symptoms:

Symptoms of nutritional deficiency

  • Loss weight fast – the body skinny.
  • Short stature, growth slow for the children.
  • Skin pale and dry, the quick appearance of bruises.
  • Rash.
  • Pigmentation and skin discolouration.
  • Light hair weak which is easily removed.
  • Weak bones and joints.
  • Bleeding of the gums.
  • Bulging of the tongue or cracked it.
  • Night blindness.
  • Increased sensitivity to light and glare.
  • Fatigue and permanent.
  • Rotor.
  • Anemia.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Disorder of the thyroid gland.
  • The decline in intellectual function.
  • A dip in reflexes.
  • The lack of coordination of movement.
  • Muscle spasm.
  • The vulnerability of the region and the infection.
  • Dryness of the mouth and lips.
  • Menopause for girls.

Symptom of hyper-nutrition

  • Weight gain and fat accumulation.
  • Lethargy and fatigue.
  • Pale skin.
  • The lack of coordination of movement.
  • Muscle spasm.
  • The vulnerability of the region and the infection.
  • Fatigue and permanent.
  • Rotor.
  • Light hair weak which is easily removed.
  • Weak bones and joints.

The causes of malnutrition in children and adults

أسباب سوء التغذية عند الأطفال والكبار

Building on the basic factors in the incidence of malnutrition can be distinguished the following reasons behind that situation:

1 – lack of essential nutrients

Lack of basic elements is considered the primary cause of malnutrition is the most important of those elements: energy – fats – proteins – sugars – carbohydrates – iron – calcium – potassium and others, and this can be Monetary in a group or one item depending on the situation, as for the reason for it will either be as a result of reliance on the unhealthy diet and the balanced poverty of those elements or due to problems of the gastrointestinal tract that affect the absorption of those elements and get them.

2 – diseases that affect appetite and absorption

Increases the likelihood of malnutrition in children and adults with the presence of diseases that affect the appetite and digestion and absorption of food, such as: diseases of the digestive system (irritable bowel syndrome – gastric nerve – malabsorption – increased beneficial intestinal bacteria – infection with intestinal worms…) diseases of the liver and kidney, cancer, AIDS, the existence of strikes and problems in the teeth and make eating difficult and painful, which adversely affect both appetite and of the possibility of absorption of and body the nutrients it needs.

3 – depression, eating disorders, mental

Not be problems and disorders that affect appetite, always physically, but have mental disorders the effect of larger and heavier, a distinction can be made between: depression, which either leads to a sharp decrease in appetite or an increase, in addition to gluttony or to dump feelings eating which drives a person to carry large amounts with the aim of getting rid of stress and anxiety you feel, the most important is the lack of nutrition nervous system which often affects teenage girls with the aim of weight loss unfortunately as possible to guide their lives.

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4 – poverty and lack of food intake

Poverty and growth in the food intake of the most important causes of malnutrition of children and adults in all parts of the world, in addition to the contamination of water sources basic and droughts scarcity of rainfall and lack of agricultural land and distributed irregularly and do not use it and cultivate it in the right way, as well as forest fires, logging, and construction of buildings on the cultivated land.


Treatment of malnutrition and deal with it

علاج سوء التغذية عند الأطفال والتعامل معه

The following are some of the things that can be able to cope with malnutrition.

1. poor nutrition in the stage of El Geneina

Attention must be given to change the parent status of their health, and also during childbirth should wait two minutes before cutting the umbilical cord so that the embryo receives the maximum amount of blood.

2 – malnutrition in newborns

You must make sure that the baby starts breastfeeding within the first hour of birth because colostrum (the first milk) is rich in nutrients and the extent of his immune system, reduces inflammation, and then is feeding every 2 – 3 hours.

3 – malnutrition in infants and toddlers

By 6 months to a year would be necessary to support the milk mother’s milk the appropriate in addition to the introduction of a number of healthy foods from vegetables and fruit.

4 – malnutrition in school-age children and youth

You Should Eat 3 to 5 balanced meals contain what the body needs of the essential nutrients with the importance of the exercise and conduct tests regularly to ensure the health of the person.

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5 – malnutrition in women of reproductive age

Women in all stages of their lives in childbearing age rely on a healthy balanced diet offers the body what it needs from nutrients, pregnant women and lactating women need iron-rich foods the most important meat – liver and poultry–, fish, in addition to the physical and psychological support, preferably leaving a period between 2 – 3 years between each campaign and the next so that they are rebuilding stocks of nutrients.

6 – malnutrition in the elderly

For each of the persons and the elderly with them to be sure to get sufficient amount of healthy foods balanced and varied with the testing overall periodically.


Malnutrition is a real problem in all parts of the world not many risks that may threaten the life, so make sure you get what the body needs from a balanced food and follow the general health and conduct of medical examinations.

Sources

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