Pituitary adenoma is a benign tumor rare in the pituitary gland in the head, can occur at any age, but the reasons are largely unknown, this can cause tumor various hormonal disorders and cause headaches and visual disturbances are the most prominent symptoms of a pituitary tumor, and with proper treatment usually the condition improves, here you can read everything you need to know about the symptoms of pituitary tumor, causes, and treatment methods.
What is a tumor of the pituitary gland
Formation of pituitary adenomas, about 10% of all brain tumors and most often in the age group of 35 to 45 years old, is the distinction between pituitary adenomas that produce hormones (about 60 percent of the cases) and those that do not produce.
Examples of tumors producing hormones:
- Tumors of prolactin: produces prolactin, which stimulates the production of breast milk
- Tumors that form of growth hormone (STH)
- Tumors that form adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which controls, among other things, in the formation and release of hormones of the adrenal cortex
These tumors are benign and do not constitute data, but produced hormone excess can lead to all kinds of disorders in the body.
One of the most tumors are hormone-producing common so-called nasopharyngeal tumor craniofacial that occurs when children, adolescents and youth.
What is the function of the pituitary gland
Pituitary is a gland the size of a cherry in the fall at the base of the skull bony structures close to the other brain such as the visual track, andconsists of the pituitary gland of:
The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
So-called dissolution of the nervous stores hormones oxytocin and vasopressin (ADH, the hormone anti-diuretic), which are formed in the hypothalamus, an area of the nervous Central at the bottom of the brain.
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Lobe of the mediator of the pituitary gland
It produces the hormone stimulating melanocytes (MSH), which is necessary for the formation of pigmentation on the skin or the iris of the eye.
The anterior lobe
End of the front lobe of six hormones regulate primarily the function of organs and other glands:
- Gonadotropin: hormone follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutein (LH)
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
- Thyroid hormone
- Growth hormone (STH)
Regulate hormones of the pituitary gland a wide range of physical functions, such as sleep and the female and the production of urine and the function of the thyroid gland and reproductive organs and the balance of water and salt in the body and the production of milk during pregnancy, and control the temperature of the body metabolism of sugar and fat also by hormones.
What are the symptoms of pituitary tumor
Most pituitary adenomas grow slowly and symptoms of a pituitary tumor be gradual in their appearance, and general symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting and paralysis of muscles.
Cause tumors non-hormonal complaints uncharacteristic of his result from pressure and irritation of the structures of the other, these are for example, headaches, visual disturbances and pallor, with the passage of time they tend to cause the deficiency of hormones.
Tumors producing hormones
Recognize the symptoms of pituitary tumor here on any hormones that are produced:
Tumors growth hormone
Growth hormone is not only important for the development and growth of children but in adults also, all parts of the body such as the hands, feet, nose, ears, chin include this so-called acromegaly, as it determines the storage of more fat in the stomach, and increasing fat levels in the blood, often stored calcium is less in the bone, this can reduce bone density ( osteoporosis).
Tumors problem the hormone corticotropin (ACTH)
Lead to obesity and can occur muscle weakness, high blood pressure and increased sugar levels in the blood, atherosclerosis, and bone loss and body hair growth abnormal, depression.
A tumor of the pituitary gland and hormone solutions
The hormone prolactin (milk hormone) is especially important during pregnancy and lactation, originates in the pituitary gland ensures that the breast produces a solution, if tumors in the pituitary form of prolactin, increasingly, here we talk about tumor prolactin.
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Tumors of prolactin: the resulting absence of menstrual period in women or be irregularly, lack of milk production and secretion of milk in the breast, might cause infertility.
In men grow breasts it seems more feminine, and suffering from loss of sexual pleasure goes down and physical ability, sometimes problems occur in erectile dysfunction .
Do you pituitary tumor serious
Often be this type of tumor is dangerous as it can cause very serious complications if left symptoms of pituitary tumor without treatment or not treated properly, it can cause loss of vision due to pressure on the optic nerves, as that in the case of failure to supply the body hormone necessary medicines will happen to the permanent lack in hormones in the body, as there is a serious complications but they are rare and are occurrence of stroke pituitary gland.
What are the causes and risk factors Laura pituitary
Can requires pituitary adenoma deteriorate when the glandular cells of individual in pituitary gland and start growing unchecked, why is this happening have yet to be clarified.
In some patients, the tumor develops in the pituitary gland in the context of tumors of the endocrine glands multiple (MEN1), this clinical picture amenable to inheritance where they are to change many of the hormonal glands is a disease due to a genetic defect.
How is the diagnosis of a tumor of the pituitary gland
The doctor will first engage in a detailed discussion with the patient, in order to be able to identify change an incident in your appearance, for example the expansion of a large nose is useful to bring a copy of the offer you for yourself to the doctor, the doctor ask you about your symptoms to determine the symptoms of a pituitary tumor.
After a physical examination, if there is a tumor in the pituitary gland it may be necessary to conduct further tests, for example examination of the eyes including the identification of the visual field, blood tests, hormones stimulate excess production or loss of hormones, as well as methods of imaging such as X-rays, CT (computerized tomography) or magnetic resonance imaging .
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How to treat pituitary tumor
Considered a sign of pituitary tumor symptoms and effects on metabolism of hormones and hormonal activity of the tumor.
If you are not the symptoms of pituitary tumor obvious, it is usually enough to monitor his growth at regular intervals using imaging techniques, treatment only when the cause of the tumor the symptoms of the patient .
Some types of pituitary tumors usually do not require surgery: for example, it is preferred to treat prolactin with medication ( dopamine agonists ), however in some cases also be considered in the surgical removal of the tumor Allee.
For example, if the treatment does not work drug therapy or vision loss progresses despite treatment, or there is a desire to have children.
The treatment of choice for growth hormone and benign tumors of the region of the ACTH is pituitary surgery, the chance of success is very good because microscopic tumors are very small, they can perform the surgery through the nose.
After the surgery there is no visible scar on the head, can remove small tumors in 9 out of 10 cases without remnant tissue, tumors require a large craniotomy.
Removed tumors of the pituitary gland by a specialist in neurosurgery, and then the patient often takes the hormones throughout his life.
And radiation therapy is very rare used in these tumors, but if the adenoma is very large and must be reduced before surgery, if the hormonal disorders is extremely strong, the patient is treated by medication before surgical intervention.
You must compensate for inadequate job associated with tumor in the pituitary before and after surgery by giving hormones (called hormone replacement therapy ).
Depending on the hormonal deficiency, it may mean that the intake of hydrocortisone, thyroid hormone, sex hormones (e.g., androgens, estrogens), growth hormones, or desmopressin.
In the end after completion of treatment of a tumor of the pituitary gland, the tests, the ongoing task for the recognition of replicating the disease in an early stage, treat if necessary, so if you notice symptoms of a pituitary tumor mentioned you or one of your relatives you should expect the doctor immediately.
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