Symptoms of lung cancer what are the risk factors for it

What is lung cancer

Is a group of diseases characterized by the growth of abnormal in one of the lungs , or both, this type when exposed to the natural processes of mitosis, cellular transport, which explains the growth of the abnormal can’t control it, these abnormal cells don’t say the functions of the cells of the normal lung (receiving oxygen when you inhale and eject the carbon dioxide when you exhale) and do not require to the tissues of the pulmonary sound, which leads to the appearance of symptoms of lung cancer.

Grow these cells to a mass, or tumor invades directly the tissues of the surrounding organs, and spread to other parts of the body, it also has the ability to grow again after removing it.

The causes of lung cancer

There is no clear cause say infection this kind of disease, however, there are factors that increase the chances of its infection like:

  • Smoking is considered is the most important cause of lung cancer as it contains more than 4,000 chemicals, all of which increase the chances of infection, if a person who smokes more than a pack of cigarettes per day increases the risk of cancer of the lung by 20-25 times more than the person who didn’t smoke, once the withdrawal of the person from smoking decreases the risk of injury by gradually.
The greater the number of cigarettes per day increases the incidence, as well as for a number of years.
  • Exposure to cigarette smoke frequently “passive smoking”.
  • Direct exposure to lasting and air pollutants from cars, factories and other sources.
  • Exposure to asbestos, or of radioactive material.
  • The incidence of some lung diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB) andchronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  • Some of the tasks that may result in exposure to arsenic, chromium, nickel, aromatic hydrocarbons.
  • The incidence of cirrhosis of the lung.

Symptoms of lung cancer

In the beginning of the disease be the symptoms of lung cancer non-specific and similar to a number of other lung diseases, and with the progress of the disease show its symptoms clearly and from these symptoms:

  • Cough, especially if it continues or becomes severe.
  • Pain in the chest shoulder, or back unrelated to pain from coughing.
  • A change in color or volume of sputum.
  • Cough accompanied by sputum with blood.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Hoarseness.
  • Annoying sounds during development.
  • Inflammation of the lung or inflammation of the bronchial tubes
  • Coughing up blood

If the cancer has spread lung, lost a person feels the symptoms in other places of the body, common places to spread include other parts of the lungs, and the lymph, bones, brain, liver, and adrenal glands.

It is lung cancer symptoms which occur when you spread it:

  • Loss in appetite.
  • Loss unexplained of time.
  • Muscle wasting, general weakness.
  • Headache.
  • Pain in the joints
  • Fractures, bone related injuries-offs.
  • Neurological symptoms, such as unstable or memory loss
  • Bleeding.
  • Clots in the blood.

Diagnosis of lung cancer

When the symptoms of lung cancer mentioned above, the doctor will take a history detailed in addition to examine the bed of the patient, and then will request several tests, including:

  • X-ray “x-ray” of the chest.
  • Cross-sectional image of the chest and the rest of the members of the body, and where I show the details of the lung more clearly, seeing the extent of its spread.
  • An MRI of the chest.
  • Endoscopy of the bronchi, and that by entering the tube loader with a tiny camera is used to see the trachea through the mouth.
  • A biopsy of the lungs, examine the tumor under a microscope and determine the quality.

Treatment of lung cancer

Is determined a treatment plan based on the stage of the presence of cancer and extent of spread in the body, and in general lung cancer is difficult to treatment, where it is diagnosed most often at advanced stages, and calculated the rate of survival for five years is 15%.

Options include a treatment of this type of cancers include the following:

  • Chemotherapy: is used here chemotherapy into a vein, and offers to each of the cells of the natural and the rational, and when it coincided with the surgery in stages of the cancer the first give greater benefit, and may be the only option in the case of the disease was not fit for surgery.
  • Radiation therapy: this is by focusing high-energy rays on the topic of the tumor, and in conjunction with chemotherapy usually.
  • Palliative therapy: this is the committee for this option when the spread of the disease throughout the body and depends on the removal of the pain and provide comfort to the patient as much as possible.
  • Surgical intervention: it is considered the treatment of choice in the early stages of the disease where he works to remove the tumor and part of surrounding tissue, there are several types of them based on the amount of lung tissue that will be removed, the type of surgical approach that will be used depends on the location of the tumor in the lung, its size and type the body of the patient, weight, any previous surgeries, and types:
  1. Removal limited: allow the removal process is only a small part of the lung with partial or wedge.
  2. Lobectomy: removal of a large portion of the lung (there are three lobes of lung on the right and two on the left) this is the most common surgery for lung cancer.
  3. Lung resection: removal of a lung full.

Recovery after thoracic surgery depends on the extent of surgery, whether or not it is implemented with a minimum of surgical intervention as well as the age and fitness of the patient, returning many patients to their homes within three to four days after surgery.

Sources

  • Cleveland Clinic (2019) Lung Cancer, Available at: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/4375-lung-cancer (Accessed: 13 Oct. 2019).
  • Melissa Conrad Stöppler (2019) Lung Cancer, Available at: https://www.medicinenet.com/lung_cancer/article.htm (Accessed: 13 Oct. 2019).
  • Cancer Care (2019) Lung Cancer, Available at: https://www.lungcancer.org/find_information/publications/163-lung_cancer_101/265-what_is_lung_cancer (Accessed: 13 Oct. 2019).

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